chalukya dynasty – Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Pallava and Chola.

Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Pallava and Chola:

In ancient times, political powers like Maurya, Gupta, and Vardhan were emerging in North India, while similar powerful powers were formed in South India. The Satvahan, Chalukyas dynasty, Pallava, Chola, Pandya, etc. dynasties have to be mentioned as important and influential dynasties in South India.

Chalukya clan:

(1) The Chalukyas of Badami is one of the leading families in the history of South India.

(2) The capital of the Chalukyas was at Vatapi (now Badami, Dist. Bijapur).

(3) This family emerged in the fifth century AD.

(4) Jaisingh is the founder of this family. Ranarag came to power after him.

(5) The real growth of the Chalukya kingdom took place during the first Pulakeshi period (535-66 AD). He used to call himself Maharaj. He also performed Ashwamedha Yajna. He was succeeded by Kirtivarman I and Manglish.

Second Pulkeshi:

(1) The second king of the Chalukya dynasty is Pulakeshi II (609-42 AD).

(2) The second Pulakeshi defeated Kadamba, Ganga, Alup, Maurya, Malav, Gurjar, etc. kings of Konkan in battle. Emperor Harshavardhana also had to give up before him.

(3) The second Pulakeshi had made himself a book like Satyashraya, Parmeshwar, and Prithvi Vallabh.

(4) After the second Pulakeshi, the first Vikramaditya, Vinayaditya, Vijayaditya, the second Vikramaditya, the second Kirtivarman, etc. became kings in this family.

(5) The chalukya dynasty kings ruled over a large area of ​​South India for more than two hundred years. Although he was proud of Hinduism, he was religiously tolerant.

(6) The chalukya dynasty encouraged art. He also established relations with the kings of Iran and Sri Lanka.

(7) They controlled the trade from the West Bank. He had benefited from it.

Rashtrakuta clan:

(1) The past history of the Rashtrakuta family is not well known. There is much debate among scholars about that. Dantivarman, the first Indra, the first Govinda, and the second Indra of that family were the early kings of Mandlik; But Dantidurg was the first to establish an independent state of Rashtrakutas (AD 753); Therefore, Dantidurga can be called the founder of the Rashtrakuta family.

(2) After Dantidurga (753-57 AD), his cousin Krishna I came to the throne. After him, kings like Dhruv, III Govind, Amoghvarsh (814-78 AD), II Krishna, III Indra, II Amoghvarsh, IV Govind, III Amoghvarsh, III Krishna, etc. became kings in the Rashtrakuta family.

(3) Rashtrakuta king Govinda III had expanded his kingdom by achieving many victories. During his career, the power of Rashtrakutas reached its peak. He defeated the Pallava, chalukya dynasty, Gurjar, Pal, Ganga, etc. kings and created his fear everywhere.

(4) Govind III is considered to be the greatest king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty due to his prowess.

Infinite year:

(1) Hade is also a prominent king of Rashtrakutas. However, he did not have a special reputation for prowess as his policy was one of peace. However, he was a patron of science and art.

(2) Amoghvarsh had composed a poem called ‘Kavirajmarg’ in the Kannada language. Scholars like Jivasena and Mahaviracharya were his patrons.

(3) He was a devotee of Mahalaxmi, But he was fascinated by Jainism.


(1) Art and learning flourished during the Rashtrakuta period. Many scholars, pundits, and writers passed away during this period. Hinduism and Jainism gained importance in society.

(2) Many Hindu temples were built during this period. The importance of charity increased; But at the same time, caste restrictions became stricter. Untouchability began to be observed. The social status of women was greatly degraded.

(3) It was during this period that Adya Shankaracharya emerged. At the end of this period, the Marathi language emerged.

Chalukya of Kalyan:

(1) Shortly after the end of Badami’s Chaluky rule, another Chaluky rule emerged at Kalyan (now Kalyani).

(2) The second oil was the founder of the Chalukya family of Kalyan.

(3) The names of some of the prominent kings of this family are as follows- Satyashraya, II Jaisingh, First Someshwar, Ahavmalla, Second Someshwar, Sixth Vikramaditya, Third Someshwar, Jagdekamall, Third Tail, Fourth Someshwar, etc.

(4) The power of the Chalukyas of Kalyan generally lasted from the tenth century AD to the twelfth century AD.

Sixth Vikramaditya:

(1) The sixth Vikramaditya (1077-1126 AD) is considered to be the greatest king of this dynasty. He was a mighty warrior. He had defeated the Chola, Hoysala, Kalchuri, Kadamba, Yadav, Shilahar, etc. kings in battle.

(2) He had established political relations with King Vijayabahu of Sri Lanka.

(3) His pastor Bilhan, Vijnaneshwar was a scholar. He was holding the book ‘Tribhuvanmalla’.

Pallava clan:

Like many other dynasties of antiquity, you cannot get reliable information about the past history of the Pallava dynasty. Some historians believe that the family was founded in the third century CE Samudragupta defeated the kings in his southern expedition

It mentions the Pallava king Vishnugop. Sinhavishnu

(1) From the time of Simhavishnu (575-600 AD), the importance and power of the Pallavas began to increase. Naturally, information related to the Pallavas can be obtained from this period.

(2) The kings who became in this family after Simhavishnu were first Mahendravarman, first Narasimhavarman, second Mahendravarman, first Parmeshwarvarman, second Narasimhavarman, second Parmeshwarvarman, second Nandivarman, Dantivarman, third Nandivarman, etc.

(3) The last king of the Pallavas, Aparajit, was defeated by the Chola king Aditya and the Pallava rule came to an end.

First Narasimhavarman:

(1) The first Narasimhavarman (630-68 AD) is considered to be the greatest king of the Pallava dynasty. Its most important feat was the conquest of the Badami capital of the Chalukya king Pulakeshi II. Pulkeshi was killed in this battle.

(2) Narasimhavarman also defeated the Chola and Chera kings. He also launched naval attacks on Sri Lanka, giving it the status of Sri Lanka. He made the Pallava power the dominant power in South India.

(3) Mahendravarman, the first of the Pallava kings, was famous as a scholar. Art flourished during the reign of Narasimhavarman II.

(4) The Pallava kingdom had economic prosperity, according to the Chinese traveler Hu-en-Tsang (Yuan Chuang). He also says that the people there valued education.

Chola clan:

(1) The Cholas are another important dynasty in the South. The Chola dynasty is considered an ancient dynasty. Sangam literature (ancient South Indian literature) mentions some Chola kings.

(2) The Chola dynasty was a major power in South India in the second century AD, But in later times their importance diminished. Later, after the fall of the Pallavas, the Chola power gained importance once again.

(3) The Chola dynasty was re-established by the king Vijayalaya (850-71 AD). He took advantage of the struggle between the Pallavas and the Pandyas and conquered Thanjavur. This is the capital of the Cholas.

(4) The other important kings of the Chola dynasty were- First Aditya, First Parantak, Second Parantak, Rajaraja, First Rajendra, First Rajadhiraja, Second Rajendra, Veer Rajendra, Adhirajendra, First Kulottung, Vikram Chola, Second Kulottung, Second Rajaraja, Third Kulottung, 3rd Rajaraja, 3rd Rajendra etc.

(5) The first Aditya, the first Parantak, the Rajaraja, and the first Rajendra were important kings of the Chola dynasty.

(6) The first Aditya defeated the Pallava king Aparajit and destroyed the Pallava power.

(7) Rajaraja I is considered to be the greatest king of the Cholas. He defeated Ganga, Cher, Pandya kings. He also won the northern part of Sri Lanka. He was the most powerful man in South India during his time. He was a patron of learning and art. He is also hailed as an excellent administrator.

(8) Rajendra, the first Chola king, was also famous for his prowess. He had made a successful expedition to Bengal on the east coast of India.

(9) Outside India, the first Rajendra had launched a successful campaign against Java, Sumatra, Malaya, and Sri Lanka.

(10) The Chola kings also made fundamental achievements in the field of architecture and sculpture. He had built many magnificent and attractive temples.

(11) The Chola family had given special encouragement to the local self-governing bodies.

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