Vaishnavism and Shaivism.

Vaishnava Sect (1) In Hinduism, the sect that emerged worshiping the deity Vishnu is called ‘Vaishnava Sect’. Even in the Vedic period, the Aryans considered Vishnu as one of their deities; But she did not receive special attention. 

(2) During the Brahmanical period, due to the increase in the influence of Yajna and rituals, Buddhism and Jainism emerged. Therefore, the nature of the Vedic religion was changed and it was converted to Hinduism. 

(3) Hinduism assimilated devotional religions. With the decline of Yajna in society, the devotees started emphasizing worshiping their deity with devotion. Thus devotion arose. 

(4) In this transition, Vishnu got the position of the chief deity. He began to be worshiped with devotion. Vishnu was considered the god of creation. 

(5) The Vaishnava sect began when the Vedic religion was reviving in a new form during the Shunga and Satvahana periods, But the Vaishnava sect gained importance in the Gupta period. 

(6) The Gupta kings were Vaishnavism. During this period Vishnu was worshiped in various forms. It was during this period that the concept of incarnation developed. Ten incarnations of Vishnu began to be worshiped. Vishnu’s wife Lakshmi became a new idea. 

(7) Many temples of Vishnu were built during the Gupta period. The Gupta emperor began to call himself ‘Paramabhagvat’. Later kings of other dynasties also adopted the Vaishnava sect.

Mauryan Empire.

The establishment of the Mauryan Empire is an important event in Indian history. The reasons for this are as follows: 

(1) The establishment of the Mauryan Empire helped to create a great deal of political unity in India. 

(2) The Mauryan Empire was the first empire to spread over a very large area of ​​India. 

(3) After the rise of the Mauryan Empire, reliable history of India became available. Indian history gained credibility based on many such credible pieces of evidence. 

(4) After this period certain dates became available in Indian history. Therefore, the periods of different dynasties and rulers could be determined.

Tools of Mauryan history.

There are many tools available for the study of the Maurya period. Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Megasthenes’s Indica; Records of the Greek lawyer Demecus, inscriptions of Ashoka; Hindu mythology; You get a lot of information about the Maurya period through Buddhist and Jain literature.

Chandragupta Maurya.

(1) Chandragupta Maurya is the founder of the Mauryan Empire. Different opinions have been expressed about his clan .. Vishnu Purana mentions that he was the son of Nandaraja’s maiden named ‘Mura’, But in Buddhist scriptures, it is mentioned that he is a Kshatriya. 

(2) Chandragupta defeated the Nandaraja named Dhanananda (Sarvarthasiddhi) of Magadha and conquered the kingdom of Magadha (322 BC). He got the help of a Brahmin named Chanakya. Chanakya was insulted by Nandaraja. So Chanakya vowed to take revenge on Nanda. Later Chandragupta and Chanakya came together and defeated Nanda. 

(3) Another important work of Chandragupta was that he conquered Indian territory from the Greeks. He defeated the Greek general Eudemons and drove him out of India. 

(4) Another Greek general, Seleucus, invaded India and was defeated by Chandragupta (305 BC). Seleucus ceded some territory of the Greek Empire to Chandragupta. He also married his daughter Helen to Chandragupta. 

(5) Apart from this, Chandragupta also conquered Saurashtra, Vidarbha, Maharashtra, etc. His troops had advanced as far as Mysore in the south. In this way, he had brought a very large area of ​​India under his control. He had unquestionably dominated North India. Bindusara (1) After Chandragupta, his son Bindusara came to the kingdom. It’s period etc. C. E. 298 to etc. C. E. 273 is considered as It is called ‘Amitraghat’ which means destroyer of the enemy. Not much is known about Bindusara’s career. (2) Bindusara had friendly relations with the Greeks. His courtier Demex was a Greek lawyer. During his career, when there was an uprising at Takshashila, he sent his son Ashoka there to quell the uprising.


(1) Bindusara had many sons. Among them, Ashoka, on the strength of his duties, captured the throne of Bindusara; But he was crowned four years after he acceded to the throne. It’s period etc. C. E. 273 to etc. C. E. 232 is considered as 

(2) An important event in Ashoka’s career was his conquest of Kalinga. Etc. C. E. In 261, Ashoka invaded Kalinga with a large army and conquered the kingdom. There was a lot of bloodshed in this war. Ashoka was deeply remorseful and decided to stay away from war and violence. 

(3) The repentant Ashoka turned to Buddhism, which preached non-violence and peace. He converted to Buddhism and devoted himself to the propagation of that religion. For this, Ashoka sent missionaries to different parts of the country. Buddhism became the official religion of the state. 

(4) Ashoka in his career (around 240 BC) The third Dharmaparishad of Buddhists was held at Pataliputra. Although he emphasized the spread of Buddhism, he adopted a policy of religious tolerance. 

(5) Ashoka also kept his conduct very pure. After his conversion to Buddhism, he made large donations. 

(6) Ashoka tried to curb animal slaughter in the state. Dharamshalas, dispensaries, viharas, and food pantries were opened all over the state. He constantly looked after the interests of his subjects. 

(7) Ashoka carved inscriptions and columns all over his kingdom. Although the purpose behind it was to spread theology, you can find information about his rule and his concern for the welfare of his subjects. 

(8) After Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire began to decline. The Mauryan kings who came to power after he was weak. He lacked a sense of duty. As a result, they were unable to manage such a vast empire. Naturally, the Mauryan Empire was destroyed within 50 years after Ashoka. (9) The last Mauryan king Brihadhrath was assassinated by his general Pushyamitra Shung and seized the throne himself.

 Administration of the Mauryas.

(1) The three emperors, Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, and Ashoka, had set the stage for the administration of their empire. All the power of the kingdom was concentrated in the hands of the king, But the king did not become an uncontrollable ruler. 

(2) Officers such as ministers, ministers, etc. were appointed to assist the king in his administration. Various departments were created for the convenience of governance and the responsibility of each department was assigned to specific officers. 

(3) Various regional divisions of the state were also demolished. An important department, the intelligence department, was created in the state. 

(4) Two types of courts were set up for adjudication. They are- (1) Dharmasthiya and (2) Kantakashodhana. Economy (1) During the Maurya period, the state’s economy was agricultural. Therefore, land revenue was the main source of income for the state. (2) Apart from this, the state used to get income from the sale and purchase of goods, excise, forest and government land income, business tax, etc. This money was spent on state administration, military, and public works. Social system (1) In the Maurya period, the social structure was based only on the Chaturvarnya system. (2) Marriages usually took place in the same caste. The practice of polygamy and dowry was common. (3) The major religions of the state were Vedic, Buddhist, and Jain. During the time of Ashoka, Buddhism received royal patronage. Arts and Science (1) There was good progress in the field of arts and sciences during the Maurya period. (2) In the Maurya period Sanskrit and Pali were the two languages ​​and Brahmi and Kharoshti were the two scripts. (3) There was a remarkable achievement in the field of architecture and sculpture. The first caves in India were carved during this period. Ashoka had built many stupas, viharas, and chaityagrihas.

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