Literature and art literature of ancient India.

Literature and art literature of ancient India

Religious literature can be divided into three parts for the performance of Indians in the field of literature in ancient times

(1) The philosophers of three important religions of ancient India, namely Vedic or Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, have produced abundant religious literature. Although the treatment of theology is the main purpose of this literature, it also deals with human life, spirituality, social system, etc.

(2) In religious literature, four Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads, Puranas, Smriti, Ramayana – epics like Mahabharata, Shaddarshans like – Gautama’s justice, Kanada’s Vaisheshik, Patanjali’s Yoga, Kapila’s Sankhya, Jamini’s Purvamimansa and Badrayana’s Agams, Buddhist Tripitakas and other texts. We have already considered this religious literature.

Fine Literature:

(1) Became a great writer in ancient India. Bhasa (Swapnavasadatta), Kalidas (plays: Shakuntal, Malvikagnimitra, Vikramorvashiya; epics: Raghuvansh, Meghdoot and Ritusanhar), Shudrak (Mritchakatik), Visakhadatta (Mudrarakshas) etc. playwrights; Grammar Panini (Text: Ashtadhyayi) and Patanjali (Text: Mahabhasya); Vatsyayan, the doer of Kamashastra; Kautilya, the doer of economics; Bharat, the author of Natyashastra; Memoirs like Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada, Jupiter, Katyayana, Vyas; It is necessary to mention here Pingal etc. who wrote verses.

(2) Apart from these, there were some other important literary works – Bharavi (Kiratarjuniya – Epic), Dandi (Dashkumarcharit is a prose poem and Kavyadarsh ​​is a book on literature), Gunadhya (Brihatkatha), Vishnusharma (Panchatantra), Somdev (Kathasaritsagar), Kshemendra (Brihatkathamanjari). Ashwaghosh (epic: Buddhacharit and Soundarananda), Nagarjuna (Rasaratnakar and Madhyamikasutra), Buddhaghosh (Visuddhimagga), Vasubandhu (Abhidharmakosh), Bhatti (epic: Bhattikavya), Bhavabhuti (Mahavircharit and Uttaramcharit), Rajasekhara (Karpuramanjari) And Harshacharita), Hemchandra, Bilhan, Magh (Sanskrit epic: Shishupalavadh), Bhartruhari (Shringar – Niti – Vairagya Shatakatraya), Vasumitra (Mahavibhasha), Bhatnarayana (Drama: Venisanhar) etc.

(3) Both Milindpanho, based on the Q&A between Minander and the Buddhist monk Nagsen of the same period, and Tattvopalavasingh, written by Jayarashi, a materialist philosopher, are also noteworthy. Classical Writings In ancient times, significant writings were written on mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. These include Aryabhata’s Aryabhatiya and Ganitadhyaya; Varahmihirache Panchasiddhantika, Brihatsamhita, Brihatjatak and Brihattvivahpatal; Sushrutasamhita of Sushruta on medicine; Nighantu of Dhanvantari; Charaka’s Charaka Samhita; Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Samhita and Brahmagupta’s Brahmasfoot Siddhanta are included.

Artists have also made significant contributions to the field of art. You can think of art in three ways namely architecture, sculpture and painting.

Architecture:

(1) Indians have been famous in architecture since ancient times. The town planning, buildings, public baths at Mohenjodaro and Harappa in the Indus Valley Civilization are considered to be masterpieces of architecture.

(2) From the Maurya period onwards, Indian architecture was very advanced. The construction of palaces, temples, chaityagrihas, viharas, dharamsalas, stupas, pillars etc. built by the Indian rulers gives an idea of ​​the progress of Indian architecture.

(3) Indian architecture was also proudly mentioned by many foreigners who came to India in ancient times. Ancient architectural specimens can still be seen everywhere in India. Temples in India are considered to be the finest examples of such art.

(4) Chaityagrihas, viharas, settlements, temples, etc., carved out of hills, also bear witness to the advanced architecture of India.

Sculpture:

(1) Sculpture includes statues, statues, images made of metal or clay, etc. Many sculptures from the Indus Valley Civilization have been excavated. For example- a metal statue of a dancing woman, images of burnt clay, human statues, images of animals, etc.

(2) Sculpture flourished during the Maurya and Gupta periods. Statues of Buddha, statues of various deities, male and female figures made of metal, as well as numerous statues and images carved in caves are examples of the progress made by all Indians in this field.

(3) Due to the love of art of Indians and the generous patronage given to art and artists by the Indian rulers, it was possible to make spectacular progress in the field of art. Painting Indians had also made great strides in the field of painting. Unfortunately many specimens of painting perished over time; But the paintings found in the caves at Ajanta and Eluru give some idea of ​​the progress of the Indians in this field. Similar paintings are found in other places; But the paintings on the walls of Ajanta are considered the best.

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