Jainism and Buddhism.
(1) The rise of Jainism and Buddhism was a very important event in Indian history. These two sects have worked to give a different twist to Indian history.
(2) The nature of the ancient Vedic religion changed radically in the post-Vedic period. The simplicity of religious philosophy and ethics disappeared and the breadth of rituals increased. During the Brahmin period, there was more rigidity in religious practices. The importance of Yajna increased immensely. Therefore, the priestly class received greatness. All the power of the society was concentrated in the hands of the so-called upper castes. As a result, the plight of the common people increased.
(3) Due to the change like religion as above, important changes began to take place in social life during this period. Various sects and sects began to emerge in society.
(4) Considering the changes in social life etc. C. The pre-sixth century is considered very important. Around this time, Jainism and Buddhism emerged. His influence on Indian social life had far-reaching effects.
(1) Some Indian thinkers consider Jainism to be a separate sect from Hinduism itself, But this claim is not accepted by the followers of Jainism. Proponents of Jainism believe that Jainism is older than Vedic religion.
(2) Vardhman Mahavira is generally considered to be the founder of Jainism; But according to Jainism, a total of twenty-four Tirthankars of this religion became. Mahavira is the twenty-fourth Tirthankar.
(3) According to Jainism, Rishabhdev is the first Tirthankar. The 23rd Tirthankar Parshvanath passed away 250 years before Mahavira. Mahavira carried on the same tradition.
(1) e. C. Vardhamana was born in 540 BC in the suburb of Kundagram in Vaishali. His father’s name was Siddharth and his mother’s name was Trishla. Vardhamana was married to Yashoda. At the age of 30, he renounced worldly pleasures and became a laborer. He then underwent severe torture for twelve years.
(2) Vardhamana attained Kevalajnana at the age of forty-two. He conquered his senses. Hence it came to be called ‘Jin’. He then spent thirty years of his life in missionary work. It got a lot of followers. They came to be called ‘Jains’.
(3) etc. C. E. In 468, at the age of 72, Vardhamana passed away at ‘Pava’ near Rajgriha.
Principles of Jainism.
(1) Mahavira does not accept the Vedas. He does not agree that God is the Creator of all things. Therefore, he has opposed sacrificial rites, rituals, etc. However, he acknowledges the existence of God.
(2) Jains believe that man is liberated from karma, that is, he attains ‘Kevalajnana’ and reaches a higher position.
(3) Jainism says that there are eight types of deeds. The teaching of this Dharma is that the highest goal of every soul is to attain liberation from this karma and attain only knowledge.
(4) The way to get rid of karma is to practice Triratna. The three gems of Jainism are as follows (a) Samyak Darshan (b) Samyak Gyan and (c) Samyak Charitra.
(5) Jains believe that the conduct of these three gems frees the soul from karma and frees it from the cycle of birth and death.
(6) Mahavira has placed special emphasis on non-violence in his teachings. He does not condone any form of violence.
(7) There are two types of followers of Mahavira, Shramana and Shravaka. Shramana means Jain sadhu and Shravak means householder or worldly worshiper.
(8) Jainism has laid down very strict rules for laborers. In Jainism, it is said that one should practice non-violence, truth, non-violence, non-acquisition, and celibacy in one’s life. For the listeners, he has laid down rules such as not to do violence to animals, to always tell the truth, not to steal and commit adultery, to keep one’s life pure and sattvic, to give alms, and to serve the saints.
(1) Due to the high principles stated by Mahavira and the patronage given to Jainism, Jainism spread in many parts of this country. People from Vidheh, Magadha, Kausal, etc. adopted this religion. The religion also reached some parts of South India.
(2) As many kings of India adopted Jainism, the common people also became attracted to it. The spread of the Jain scriptures was also in the Prakrit language of the common people.
(3) In the post-Gupta period, Jainism began to decline.
(4) Two sects were later formed in Jainism. They are- one, the Digambar sect, and the other, the Shwetambar sect. The Digambar sect is considered to be more karmic than the Shwetambar sect. During this period many superstitions and undesirable norms were prevalent in Hinduism. The priesthood was very important. The caste system had taken a rigid form. The condition of the common people had become very deplorable. Against this background, people were attracted to the simple, straightforward philosophy of Buddhism.
(1) Gautama Buddha is the founder of Buddhism. His original name was Siddhartha ए. His birth etc. C. E. He was born in 563 at Lumbini in the Shakyakula of Kapilavastu. His father’s name was Shuddhodhan and his mother’s name was Mayadevi. His mother Mayadevi died on the seventh day after his birth. Gautama was taken care of by his aunt and stepmother Mahaprajapati Gautami.
(2) Siddhartha was married to Yashodhara. They also had a son named Rahul.
(3) Siddhartha’s childhood was very luxurious; But one day while he was out of the palace, he saw the misery of human life. When he saw that the whole world was full of sorrow, he was distracted. In such a state of despair, one day he gave up his worldly life and went out of the palace to find out the root of the misery in human life. This is called Siddhartha’s ‘Mahabhinishkrama’.
(4) After that Siddhartha continued to travel to many places. He began to search for the Guru for enlightenment. He also endured various forms of self-torture. He finally meditated under an ash tree in Gaya. It was here that he attained enlightenment at the age of thirty-five. He came to be known as Gautama Buddha.
(5) During this later period, Gautama added many disciples. He started going from village to village to spread his ideas. He also sent his disciples everywhere to spread the religion. As a result, Buddhism gained a large following, and many kings embraced Buddhism.
(6) e. C. E. In 483, Gautama passed away at Kushinagar
The essence of Gautama Buddha’s teachings is contained in the four Aryasatyas he recited. These four Aryan truths are as follows.
(1) Sorrow: The world is full of sorrow. Life is miserable.
(2) Suffering: Man’s craving is the root of all misery in the world.
(3) Controlling grief: If craving or lust is destroyed, grief can be removed.
(4) The path of prevention of sorrow: It is necessary to adopt the Ashtanga path to remove lust, that is, to prevent sorrow.
The eight paths prescribed by the Buddha are as follows – (1) Samyak Drishti (2) Samyak Sankalpa (3) Samyak Bhashan (4) Samyak Kriti (5) Samyak Ajiv (6) Samyak Vyayam (7) Samyak Smriti and (8) Samyak Samadhi.
Gautama Buddha did not accept caste, high and low distinctions. There is nothing eternal in the world, so man should try to attain Nirvana without attachment to anything. The Buddha has said that the practice of Ashtangamarga leads to Nirvana. Panchsheel
The Buddha told his followers to adopt five principles or rules in life. These five principles are known as Panchsheel. These principles are- (1) Ahimsa (2) Asteya (3) Satya (4) Brahmacharya (5) Aparigraha.
In addition to the above five rules, the Buddha has laid down some more strict rules for Buddhist monks.
(1) Gautama Buddha’s philosophy was for the welfare of the common people. He founded Buddhism to resolve the issues of misery, misery, inequality, exploitation, oppression, etc. in society. His ideas would appeal to the common people. Naturally, the common people were attracted to Buddhism.
(2) Buddhism also received a large amount of royal patronage. Emperors like Ashoka embraced Buddhism; Therefore, this religion spread rapidly in India.
(3) To propagate and spread his new religion, Buddha established a group of monks and nuns. Built monasteries or viharas everywhere for them. These teams facilitated the propagation of Dharma. At the same time, the Buddha spread his religion in the • Pali language of the common people. That is why Buddhism reached out to the common people.
(4) Due to the efforts made by the followers of the Buddha for the propagation of the religion, Buddhism spread not only in India but also in many countries outside India.
After the great Nirvana of Gautama Buddha, conferences were held from time to time to consider the questions related to religion. There are four such Dharmasabhas or Parishads.
(1) First Dharmasabha at Rajgruh etc. C. E. Was filled in 483.
(2) Second Dharmasabha at Vaishali etc. C. E. Was filled in 383.
(3) The third Dharmasabha was inspired by Emperor Ashoka. C. E. It was full at Pataliputra at around 240.
(4) Fourth Dharmasabha during the reign of Kushan Emperor Kanishka etc. C. It was filled in 1972 at Kundalvan in Kashmir.
Scriptures and cults.
(1) The Pali scriptures of Buddhism are known as ‘Tripitaka’. Because they are divided into three pitkas- these three texts (Tripitaka) are as follows- (1) Vinayapitaka (2) Suttapitaka (3) Abhidhammapitaka.
(2) From the Tripitaka, the words of the Buddha, the facts about him, the legends, the teachings he preached, etc. are given.
(3) After the great Nirvana of Gautama Buddha, two sects were formed in Buddhism. They are- one, the Hinayana sect, and the other, the Mahayana sect. Of these, the Hinayana sect is considered to be Karmath and Sanatani, while the Mahayana sect is considered to be a reformer and liberal.
(4) Buddhism enriched Indian culture. During the Brahmanical period, this religion worked to curb many evils that were practiced in the name of Dharma. Bahujan Brought about a new awakening in society. He also conveyed the message of social equality by opposing social inequality and caste discrimination.