The shape of the earth is round; But not even like a ball. It is fudgier in the equatorial region, and less flattened at both poles. In short, the earth is shaped like an orange. This particular shape of the earth is termed ‘geoid’.


(1) A lunar eclipse occurs when the earth comes between the moon and the sun.

(2) A ‘solar eclipse’ occurs when the moon comes between the sun and the earth.

(3) Lunar eclipses always occur on the full moon; So solar eclipse always falls on the new moon.

The North Pole and the South Pole.

The point on the earth which is in front of the pole and revolves around itself in its place while the earth revolves around itself is called the ‘North Pole’. The point on the opposite side of this point is called the South Pole. The imaginary line that connects these two poles, running straight through the belly of the earth, is called ‘Earth’s axis. The earth revolves around this.

Equatorial and hemispherical.

An imaginary circular line passing through the earth’s surface at equal distances between the two poles is called an ‘equator’. The parts of the globe that fall due to this imaginary line are called ‘hemispheres’. The hemisphere from the equator to the North Pole is known as the ‘North Hemisphere’; The hemisphere up to the South Pole is called the ‘Southern Hemisphere’.


On the surface of the earth, imaginary lines drawn parallel to the equator and joining the same latitude are called ‘axis’. Such lines from the equator to the north pole are called the ‘north axis’ and the lines from the equator to the south pole are called the ‘south axis’.


The imaginary lines on the earth’s surface connecting the two poles and perpendicular to the axis are called ‘lines’. Since all these lines are equal in length and go south-north, the question is which of these lines should be considered original or basic; Therefore, according to the international code, the line passing through the city of ‘Greenwich’ in England is considered an ‘Original Line’.


The imaginary line formed when one of the many points between the equator and the south or north pole is connected to the equator, which forms the angle north or south of the equatorial plane near the center of the earth, is called the ‘latitude’ of that point. Suppose such a point has an angle of 35 to the south of the equatorial plane near the center of the earth, then we say that the latitude of that point is 35 south.


The angle made by the plane of a point on the surface of the earth east or west of the plane of the original line is called ‘longitude’. Suppose the plane of such a point is west of the original line and it makes an angle of 30 शी with the plane of the original line, then we determine the position of that point on the earth’s surface as 30 ° west longitude.

Climate and weather.

The spherical gaseous belt around the earth is called the ‘atmosphere’. The atmosphere is a mixture of many gases. Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant gases at 78.03 percent and 20.99 percent respectively. Argon gas is 0.94 percent; Carbon dioxide is 0.03 percent. Hydrogen gas content is less than 0.01 percent. Vapors and dust in the atmosphere are also very small.

The general state of the atmosphere is called ‘weather’. Although the sun’s rays falling on the earth are in a straight line and parallel to each other since the earth’s surface is round, they fall in a straight or perpendicular line in some parts of the earth; In some parts, it is slanted or very slanted. As the sun’s rays fall straight or perpendicular to the equator, the temperature decreases as it moves farther south or north of the equator.

Although the distance from the equator is an important factor affecting the climate, factors such as the altitude of a particular place, the distance from the sea, and the proximity of hot and cold water currents also affect the climate.

Important tips.

(1) Since 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by water, the earth looks blue when viewed from the sky.

(2) 29% of the earth’s surface is covered by land.

(3) Due to the rotation of the earth, certain imaginary circles and zones are formed on the earth; Seasons are formed and uneven days and nights are formed.

(4) Due to the Earth’s atmosphere, space appears blue. If there was no atmosphere on Earth, it would look black.

(5) The continuous cycle of day and night continues due to the rotation of the earth.

(6) The speed of light is 2,99,792 kph. however, considering the distance of the sun from the earth, it takes about 8 minutes and 20 seconds for the sun’s rays to reach from the sun to the earth. (The sun is 14.96 million km away from the earth.)

(7) On 3rd January, the earth is at a minimum distance from the sun as it revolves around the sun in an elliptical way.

(8) The equator is an axis at equal distances from both the poles. The equator has to be mentioned as the largest axis.

(9) As the latitude increases, the length of the axis decreases.

(10) The shape of the axis on both the poles is the only point.

(11) All lines come together at both poles.

(12) The distance between two lines is 111 km at the equator. That’s it.

(13) Lines are semicircular.

(14) North pole and south pole can be fixed without giving latitude.

(15) In the southern hemisphere of the earth, due to the large area covered by water, that hemisphere is called the ‘water-hemisphere‘.

(16) In the northern hemisphere of the earth, due to a large amount of land, that hemisphere is called the ‘geo-hemisphere‘.

Satellite of Earth- Moon.

We refer to the earth’s satellite as the ‘moon’. Just as the earth revolves around itself and completes its orbit around the sun, so the moon revolves around itself and orbits the earth. The moon is 3 lakh 82 thousand 144 km from the earth. I Am at a distance. The diameter of the moon is about 3,478 kg. The mass of the moon is one-hundred-eighty-one-hundredth of the mass of the earth. It takes the moon 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes and 11.5 seconds to complete one orbit around the earth. Simply put, it takes the moon 27 days to complete one orbit around the earth.

The surface of the moon is rough, rough, and steep. Frequent meteor showers have caused many craters and holes in the moon. Since there is no atmosphere on the moon, the space looks black when viewed from the moon. Sunrise and sunset occur on the earth slowly and in a specific order; But on the moon, both of these events happen suddenly. Since there is no atmosphere on the moon, the atmosphere is large. About 121 ° C on the Sun’s side of the Moon. Gray. So much so that on the opposite side – 156 ° C. Gray, that’s the temperature. Due to this condition, life is not found on the moon. The gravitational force of the moon [As much as one-sixth of the earth’s gravitational force, a person who can jump 4 feet high on the earth can jump 24 feet high on the moon. The moon is not self-illuminated. As the planets in the solar system, the sun is the source of energy for the moon. Since only 7% of the total light received from the sun is reflected from the moon, you find the moonlight mild and fragrant.

By Admin

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