(1) Vedic culture is generally known as Aryan culture. Vedic culture emerged in India after the demise of the Indus Valley Civilization. Vedic culture has a unique influence on the history of India.
(2) The later Indian culture developed from the Vedic culture. Therefore, the study of Vedic culture becomes indispensable for an intimate understanding of Indian culture and history.
The original habitat of the Aryans.
(1) Arya was the creator of Vedic culture. What is the origin of Aryans? This is a controversial issue. According to some scholars, the Aryans were originally from Central Asia. From there he migrated to India.
(2) Lokmanya Tilak had said that the Arctic region was the original habitat of the Aryans, But this opinion is no longer valid.
(3) Many scholars do not agree that Arya came to this place from outside India. They claim that India is the original home of the Aryans. He said that the region of Saptasindhu is the region of the river Indus and its other tributaries should be the original habitat of the Aryans.
(4) Also, although it is difficult to make any definite statement on this question as there is no consensus among the scholars, the view that the Aryans were originally from Central Asia is generally accepted.
The period of Vedic culture.
There are similar differences in the period of Vedic culture. The various opinions about this period are as follows
(1) According to Lokmanya Tilak, the beginning of Rigveda, etc. S. E. It must be 6,000 years old.
(2) Jacobi introduced the period of Vedic culture etc. S. E. 4500 to etc. S. E. It should be 2500 years.
(3) Maxmलरller, S. E. 1200 years has been brought so recently.
(4) From the evidence so far, etc. S. E. 1500 years to, etc. S. E. The period of this culture can be fixed as 1000 years.
Vedic literature includes four types of texts. They are as follows.
(1) Samhita: Rig Veda, Yajurveda, Sama Veda, and Atharva Veda are included in the Samhita.
(2) Brahmane: It is mostly in prose and contains the stories of Devadikas, sacrificial thoughts, and the practical and spiritual significance of sacrificial rites.
(3) Aranyaka and Upanishads: It discusses the philosophy of sages, the life of animals, and ideas about God, soul, and the universe.
(4) Vedas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads are also called ‘Shruti’.
(5) We will briefly introduce the four Vedas namely Rig Veda, Yajurveda, Sama Veda, and Atharva Veda which are included in the Vedic literary form of Samhita.
■ Rigveda: Rigveda is the oldest Veda. This includes the riches said to invoke the Vedic deities. The Rig Veda has a total of 10 mandalas with 1,028 suktas and 10,552 richas. Some of these churches are ancient and some are considered to be later.
■ Yajurveda: The mantras that are recited at the time of Yajna are called ‘Yajus’. Such mantras are included in the Yajurveda. There are two distinctions of Yajurveda. They are (a) Shukla Yajurveda and (b) Krishna Yajurveda, there are a total of six Samhitas of Yajurveda.
■ Samaveda: is the shortest Veda. The majority of these are from the Rig Veda. During this yajna, the song becomes richer. The Sama Veda is useful in understanding the history of Indian music. The Samaveda has two parts, Archie and Uttarchik.
■ Atharva Veda: Atharva Veda includes witchcraft, jaranamaranvidya, vashikaran mantra. It gives you information about superstitions and naive beliefs in society. There are two codes of Atharva Veda in total.
(6) Apart from Vedas, Shiksha, Kalpa, Grammar, Nirukta, Chhandas, and Jyotish are also famous. The knowledge of Vedas is presented in the form of Sutras in Vedanga.
(1) From the Rig Veda Samhita you get very useful information about the social, economic, religious, and political life of the Aryans.
(2) In India, Aryans initially settled in the Saptasindhu region. Then they moved eastwards to the Ganges valley. There were different groups of Aryans. The main gangs were Bharat, Puru, Kuru, Yad, Sanjay. These gangs often clashed with each other. Also, there were frequent conflicts between Arya and Anaya. Later Aryans established their control over all these regions.
(3) Monarchy existed in the Vedic period. The king was the head of state. Meetings and committees were held to assist the king. They had to give advice to the king. The king’s job was to judge. Of course, he was assisted by other officers.
(1) Aryans initially had a caste system. These characters would have fallen out of business, But in later times it was decided by the birth of a person. From that, the caste system emerged later.
(2) The caste system did not exist in the Vedic period.
(3) The family was considered an important institution in society. The Aryan family system was a joint family system. The head of the family ruled over the family. The patriarchal system was another feature of Aryan social life.
That did not exist. Children have the freedom to choose their mate. However, there were some social restrictions.
(5) Although monogamy was preferred, the practice of polygamy was also prevalent to some extent.
(6) In the Vedic period, women had gained an important place in society. The wife participated in all religious activities with her husband.
(7) Sati’s move did not exist. A childless widow could have children by appointment. Women have a lot of freedom.
(8) At that time Lopamudra, Vishwavara, Ghosha, Apala, Nikata, etc. became Pandits.
(1) The main occupation of Aryans was agriculture. They used oxen for farming. Animal husbandry was another important occupation of his.
(2) Other small and big businesses were also running at that time. Therefore, weavers, carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, etc. were seen there.
(3) Arya’s diet consisted of grains like wheat, barley, milk, curd, fruits, vegetables, animal meat, etc. They were drinking.
(4) Aryan dress was very simple. They used cotton and woolen clothes.
(5) Gambling, dancing, hunting, and chariot races were his means of entertainment.
(1) Religion and morality have a high place in Vedic culture. The Aryans used to worship the gods of nature. Many deities like Indra, Varuna, Agni, Surya, Vishnu, Ashvin, Vayu, etc. are mentioned in his scriptures.
(2) Sacrifices, prayers, and rituals were of particular importance in the Aryan religion. Animal sacrifices were offered in sacrifices.
(4) Marriage was considered a sacred rite. Marriages of children used to take place only when they reached that age. Q. Child marriage